•16 genera and 115 species in North America


Identification Tips:

• Body length 13-25 mm (not including gills)
• 3 tail-like gills extending from rear of abdomen are all approximately equal in length
• Small veins in gills are highly branched and join main vein at an angle
• Lower lip is thick and broadly triangular and is not notched in the centre

Life History:

Found in wide range of habitats inclduing ponds, lakes, wetlands, ditches and streams
Most common in standing water on live aquatic plants or among dead vegetation
Prey upon smaller invertebrates
Females lay eggs underwater

Very SensitiveSomewhat SensitiveFacultativeSomewhat TolerantVery Tolerant

Primary Information Source:
Voshell, J. Reese. 2002. A Guide to Common Freshwater Invertebrates of North America. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company. Blacksburg, Virginia.